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Romanticism - Romantic Art History(-) - Aboutcom

Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject nor in exact truth, but in a way of feeling. -- Charles Baudelaire (-)

Right there, courtesy of Baudelaire, you have the first and largest problem with Romanticism: it is nearly impossible to concisely define what it was. When we talk about Romanticism the Movement, we arent using the root word romance in the sense of hearts and flowers or intuation. Instead, we use romance in the sense of glorification. 内容来自dedecms

Romantic visual and literary artists glorified things ... which takes us to thorny problem number two: the things they glorified were hardly ever physical. They glorified huge, complex concepts such as liberty, survival, ideals, hope, awe, heroism, despair, and the various sensations that nature evokes in humans. All of these are felt -- and felt on an individual, highly subjective level.

Aside from promoting intangible ideas, Romanticism may also be loosely defined by what it stood against. 本文来自织梦

The movement championed spiritualism over science, instinct over deliberation, nature over industry, democracy over subjugation, and the rusticity over the aristocracy. Again, these are all concepts open to extremely personalized interpretation.

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As you can see, definitively defining Romanticism is a lot like trying to climb a greased pole. Please dont fixate on it; it will only give you a headache. Besides, none of the greatest art historians have been able to come up with a satisctory, succinct response. Simply keep the word glorification in mind as we go over the rest of this article, and things will sort themselves out.


Keep in mind that Romanticism affected literature and music, as well as visual art. The German Sturm und Drang movement (late s-early s) was predominantly revenge-driven literary and minor-key musical, but led to a handful of visual artists painting terrifying scenes. For a good example, look up Henry Fuselis The Nightmare ().


Romantic art truly got underway at the turn of the century, and had its greatest number of practitioners for the next years. If you are taking notes, that is an - heyday. 织梦内容管理系统

As with any other movement, though, there were artists who were young when Romanticism was old. Some of them stuck with the movement until their respective ends, while others retained aspects of Romanticism as they moved in new directions. It is not really too much of a stretch to say - and cover all of the hold-outs like Franz Xaver Winterhalter (-). After that point Romantic painting was definitely stone cold dead, even though the movement brought about lasting changes going forward. 织梦内容管理系统

Emotional EmphasisThe paintings of the Romantic period were emotional powder kegs. Artists expressed as much feeling and passion as could be loaded on to a canvas. A landscape had to evoke a mood, a crowd scene had to show expressions on every ce, an animal painting had to depict some, preferably majestic, trait of that animal. Even portraits were not totally straightforward representations -- the sitter would be given eyes meant to be mirrors of the soul, a smile, a grimace, or a certain tilt of the head. With little touches, the artist could portray his subject surrounded by an atmosphere of innocence, madness, virtue, loneliness, altruism or greed. 本文来自织梦

Nature Can Kill YouIf there is one prevalent theme to Romanticism, it is this: nature can change direction without warning, and we puny mortals are no match for it. You will find many, many examples of shipwrecks in Romantic paintings, for example. Shipwrecks, historically speaking, have always had high mortality rates. If you didnt drown, you stood a good chance of dying slowly of dehydration and starvation.


Likewise, Romantic art had more than its ir share of blizzards, fires, thunderstorms, lightning strikes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, and biblical disasters. About the only natural disaster Romanticism did not try to portray was an asteroid strike. And that is probably only because no one in the early th-century had yet discovered the geological evidence of impact events.

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Current EventsIn addition to the emotionally-charged feelings one got from looking at Romantic paintings, contemporary viewers were usually quite knowledgeable of the story behind the subject matter. Why? Because the artists frequently took their inspiration from current events. For example, when Thodore Gricault unveiled his gigantic masterpiece The Raft of the Medusa (-), the French public was already well acquainted with the gory details following the shipwreck of the naval frigate Mduse. Similarly, Eugne Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the People () fully aware that every adult in France was already miliar with the July Revolution of .


Of course, not every Romantic work related to current events. For those that did, however, the benefits were a receptive, informed viewership, and increased name recognition for their creators.


Lack of Unifying Style, Technique, or Subject MatterRomanticism wasnt like Rococo art, in which shionable, attractive people engaged in shionable, attractive pastimes while courtly love lurked around every corner -- and all of these goings-on were captured in a light-hearted, whimsical style. Instead, Romanticism included William Blakes disquieting apparition The Ghost of a Flea (-), sitting in close chronological proximity to John Constables comfortably rural landscape The Hay Wain (). Pick a mood, any mood, and there was some Romantic artist that conveyed it on canvas. 本文来自织梦

Romanticism wasnt like Impressionism, where everyone concentrated on painting the effects of light using loose brushwork. Romantic art ranged from the smooth-as-glass, highly-detailed, monumental canvas Death of Sardanapalus () by Eugne Delacroix, to J. M. W. Turners indistinct watercolor washes in The Lake of Zug (), and everything in ween. Technique was all over the map; execution was completely up to the artist.


Romanticism wasnt like Dada, whose artists were specific statements about WWI and/or the pretentious absurdities of the Art World. Romantic artists were apt to make statements about anything (or nothing), dependent on how an individual artist felt about any given topic on any given day. Francisco de Goyas work explored madness and oppression, while Caspar David Friedrich found endless inspiration in moonlight and fog. The will of the Romantic artist had the final say on subject matter.

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The most direct influence of Romanticism was Neoclassicism, but there is a twist to this. Romanticism was a type of reaction to Neoclassicism, in that Romantic artists found the rational, mathematical, reasoned elements of classical art (i.e.: the art of Ancient Greece and Rome, by way of the Renaissance) too confining. Not that they didnt borrow heavily from it when it came to things like perspective, proportions, and symmetry. No, the Romantics kept those parts. It was just that they ventured beyond the prevailing Neoclassic sense of calm rationalism to inject a heaping helping of drama. 织梦内容管理系统

The best example is the American Hudson River School, which got underway in the s. Founder Thomas Cole, Asher Durand, Frederic Edwin Church, et. al., were directly influenced by European Romantic landscapes. Luminism, an offshoot of the Hudson River School, also focused on Romantic landscapes.


The Dsseldorf School, which concentrated on imaginative and allegorical landscapes, was a direct descendant of German Romanticism.


Certain Romantic artists made innovations that later movements incorporated as crucial elements. John Constable (-) had a tendency to use tiny brushstrokes of pure pigments to emphasize dappled light in his landscapes. He discovered that, when viewed from a distance, his dots of color merged. This development was taken up with great enthusiasm by the Barbizon School, the Impressionists, and the Pointillists. 内容来自dedecms

Constable and, to a much greater degree, J. M. W. Turner often produced studies and finished works that were abstract art in everything but name. They heavily influenced the first practitioners of modern art beginning with Impressionism -- which in turn influenced nearly every modernist movement that followed it.


Brown, David Blaney. Romanticism. 织梦内容管理系统

     New York: Phaidon, . 本文来自织梦

Engell, James. The Creative Imagination: Enlightenment to Romanticism. 织梦好,好织梦

     Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, . 本文来自织梦

Honour, Hugh. Romanticism. copyright dedecms

     New York: Fleming Honour Ltd, . copyright dedecms

Ives, Colta, with Elizah E. Barker. Romanticism the School of Nature (exh. cat.). 本文来自织梦

     New Haven and New York: Yale University Press and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, .香港哪里买手表便宜.香港手机网站.香港哪里买手表便宜.

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