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Arts and Crafts movement_

ThisThis article is about the art and design movement. For handicrafts generally, see Handicraft. For other uses, see Arts &n Burne-Jones words, to wage Holy ware against the age. dedecms.com

The Robert Owen Museum, Newtown, by Frank Shayler.Morriss ideas spread during the late th and early th centuries resulting in the establishment of many associations and craft communities, although Morris was not involved with them because of his preoccupation with socialism. A hundred and thirty Arts and Crafts organisations were formed in Britain, most ween and . 织梦好,好织梦

The London suburb of Bedford Park, built mainly in the s and s, has about Arts and Crafts style houses and was once mous for its Aesthetic residents. Several Almshouses were built in the Arts and Crafts style, for example, Whiteley Village, Surrey, built ween and , with over buildings, and the Dyers Almshouses, Sus, built ween and .

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The movement had an extraordinary flowering in Scotland where it was represented by the development of the Glasgow Style which was based on the talent of the Glasgow School of Art. Celtic revival took hold here, and motifs such as the Glasgow rose became popularised. Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Glasgow School of Art were to influence others worldwide. 织梦好,好织梦

Morriss ideas were adopted by the New Education philosophy in the late s, which incorporated handicraft teaching in schools at Abbotsholme () and Bedales (), and his influence has been noted in the social experiments of Dartington Hall during the mid-th century and in the formation of the Crafts Council in .

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The movement spread to Ireland, representing an important time for the nations cultural development, a visual counterpart to the literary revival of the same time

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In Morris and some friends founded a company, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., which, as supervised by the partners, designed and made decorative objects for homes, including wall, textiles, furniture and stained glass. Later the company was re-formed as Morris & Co. In Morris established the Kelmscott Press, for which he designed a typece based on Nicolas Jensons th-century letter forms.

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Morris & Co. was well represented in the exhibition with furniture, brics, carpets and embroideries. Edward Burne-Jones observed, here for the first time one can measure a bit the change that has happened in the last twenty years.

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The Church of St. Edward the Confessor was completed in and was described by Betjeman as A mini-cathedral of the Arts and Crafts movement.

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In the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society was formed with Walter Crane as prArtsesident, holding its first exhibition in the New Gallery, London, in November . 内容来自dedecms

Burne-Jones had become a pupil of the Pre-Raphaelite painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti in London, and in the summer of both Morris and Burne Jones moved into premises in Red Lion Square in Bloomsbury. dedecms.com

The Central School of Arts and Crafts, founded in by the London County Council, with Lethaby and George Frampton as its first principals, was influenced by the Arts and Crafts philosophy, as was the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts founded shortly after. Walter Crane became head of the Royal College of Art in and tried to reform it and to introduced practical crafts, but resigned after a year. However, under Augustus Spencer, its curriculum was eventually reformed and Lethaby was brought in to head its school of design. dedecms.com

At the same time the Arts and Craft aesthetic was copied by many designers of decorative products made by conventional industrial methods. The London department store Liberty & Co., founded in , was a prominent retailer of goods in the style. 织梦内容管理系统

In , the Birmingham School of Art became the first Municipal School of Art. The school became the leading centre for the Arts and Crafts movement with the help of people such as Henry Payne and Joseph Southall.

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In , C.R.Ashbee, a major late practitioner of the style in England, founded the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The guild was a craft co-operative modelled on the medieval guilds and intended to give working men satisction in their craftsmanship. Skilled craftsmen, working on the principles of Ruskin and Morris, were to produce hand-crafted goods and manage a school for apprentices. The idea was greeted with enthusiasm by almost everyone except Morris, who was by now involved with promoting socialism and thought Ashbees scheme trivial. From to the guild prospered, employing about men. In Ashbee relocated the guild out of London to begin an experimental community in Chipping Campden in the Cotswolds. The guilds work is characterized by plain suces of hammered silver, flowing wirework and colored stones in settings. Ashbee designed jewellery and silver tableware. The guild flourished at Chipping Camden but did not prosper and was liquidated in . Some craftsmen stayed, contributing to the tradition of modern craftsmanship in the area. dedecms.com

Both Morris and Burne-Jones had originally intended to join the priesthood, but in , returning to Burne-Jones house in Birmingham from touring the cathedrals of Northern France, they decided instead to pursue careers in the visual arts, with Burne-Jones resolving to become a painter and Morris an architect. dedecms.com

Charles Francis Annesley Voysey () was an Arts and Crafts architect who also designed brics, tiles, ceramics, furniture and metalwork. His style combined simplicity with sophistication. His walls and textiles, featuring stylised bird and plant forms in bold outlines with flat colors, were used widely.

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In early Morris joined the Oxford office of the Gothic Revival architect G. E. Street, where he met fellow-architect Philip Webb and began experimenting with stone carving, wood carving, embroidery, metalwork and the of illuminated manuscripts.

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The Glasgow-born designer and theorist Christopher Dresser () was one of the first, and most important, independent designers, a pivotal figure in the Aesthetic Movement and a major contributor to the allied Anglo-Japanese movement. 织梦内容管理系统

Ruskin had argued that the separation of the intellectual act of design from the manual act of physical creation was both socially and aesthetically damaging. Morris further developed this idea, insisting that no work was carried out in his workshops before he had mastered the techniques and materials himself, and arguing that without dignified, creative human occupation people became disconnected from life.

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The Red House, in Bexleyheath, London, designed for Morris in by architect Philip Webb, exemplifies the early Arts and Crafts style, with its well-proportioned solid forms, wide porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings. Webb rejected the grand classical style and based the design on British vernacular architecture expressing the texture of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles, with an asymmetrical and quaint building composition.

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was designed in as a holiday home in Kingswear, Devon, England, in the Arts and Crafts tradition.

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Example of Arts and Crafts style influence on Federation architecture Observe the ceted bay window and the stone base dedecms.com

and was a publication of Irish nationalism. The Arts and Crafts use of stained glass was popular in Ireland, with Harry Clarke the best-known artist and also with Evie Hone. The architecture of the style is represented by the Honan Chapel () in Cork in the grounds of University College Cork. Other architects practicing in Ireland included Sir Edwin Lutyens (Heywood House in Co. Laois, Lambay Island and the Irish National War Memorial Gardens in Dublin) and Frederick Pa Hicks (Malahide Castle estate buildings and round tower). Irish Celtic motifs were popular with the movement in silvercraft, carpet design, book illustrations and hand-carved furniture. copyright dedecms

It was the first show of contemporary decorative arts in London since the Grosvenor Gallerys Winter Exhibition of .

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The first page of The Nature of Gothic by John Ruskin, printed by William Morris at the Kelmscott Press in and set in the Golden type, inspired by the th century printer Nicolas JensonIn , Eglantyne Louisa Jebb, Mary Fraser Tytler and others initiated the Home Arts and Industries Association to promote and protect rural handicrafts. In , architect A.H.Mackmurdo formed the Century Guild, a partnership of designers including Selwyn Image, Herbert Horne, Clement Heaton and Benjamin Creswick. dedecms.com

The following day they discovered a copy of Mallorys Morte dArthur in a Birmingham bookshop, it was this work, more than any other, that would define the medievalism of their early style.

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The beginnings of the Arts and Crafts movement in Scotland were in the stained glass revival of the s, pioneered by James Ballantine (). His major works included the great west window of Dunfermline Abbey and the scheme for St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. In Glasgow it was pioneered by Daniel Cottier (), who had probably studied with Ballantine, and was directly influenced by William Morris, Ford Madox Brown and John Ruskin. His key works included the Baptism of Christ in Paisley Abbey, (c. ). His followers included Stephen Adam and his son of the same name.

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In , the Art Workers Guild was initiated by five young architects, William Lethaby, Edward Prior, Ernest Newton, Mervyn Macartney and Gerald C. Horsley, with the goal of integrating design and . It was directed originally by George Blackall Simonds. By the Guild had members, representing the increasing number of practitioners of the Arts and Crafts style. 内容来自dedecms

There they wrote articles on the politics of art for The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine with other members of the Birmingham Set, and Morris began to design furniture and interiors.

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Morriss radical departure was his personal involvement in the manucture as well as the design of his products.

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Morris & Co. traded until . Its designs were sold by Sanderson and Sons and some are still in production. dedecms.com


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